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SUMMARY



The name of a prominent Ukrainian writer Panas Mirny (P. Ya. Rudchenko, 1849 1920) ranks with the names of progressive revolutionary-democratic Russian writers of the second half of the XIX-th century. Panas Mirny's creative work, lit up with T. Shevchenko's ardent muse and permeated with the ideas of progressive Russian literature, signified a new stage in the development of realistic Ukrainian prose. Panas Mirny, a profound connoisseur of his contemporary life and a thoughtful innovator in literature, depicted the life of the Ukrainian people since the times of serfdom up to the rapid development of capitalism, enriched the Ukrainian literature with new genres and themes.
Realistic picture of the Ukrainian village with its irreconcilable social contradictions, class stratification which followed the reform of 1861, ranks high in his creative work.
One of the most important works on this theme is the novel Do the oxen roar if the crib is full? written by Panas Mirny together with his brother Ivan Bilyk (1. Ya. Rudchenko) in 1875. It was the first, big social accusatory novel-epopee in the Ukrainian literature in which almost a centinery history of the Ukrainian pre-reform and post-reform village was depicted with high artistic value. The novel was published in Geneva in 1880. It appeared in the writer's native country only in 1903 under the title Lost efforts. The main idea of the book is the anarchic protest of a respectful robber who is unable to change the world of falsehood, who leads the peasants away from the real struggle for human rights and social justice.
The stories Liberty of the Hungry, Bygone and nowadays sorrow (1897), the novel A loose woman (18831884, 1928) and others are similar in the main idea to the novel Do the oxen roar if the crib is full?.
Brilliant examples of small forms of prose, written by Panas Mirny in the 80-s stories, short stories, fairy tales, the poem in prose Dream about the future classless society are notable for their deep social content.
The writer's play Limerivna (1883), In the nunnery (1884) and others based on the keen social conflicts rank high among the works of the Ukrainian drama.
Free poetic versification of the literary monument of the old Russian culture The poem about Igor's warriors, translations of the works by A. Pushkin, M. Lermontov, A. Ostrovsky, W. Shakespear, H. Longfellow into the Ukrainian language belong to the writer's pen.
Many works by Panas Mirny were published for the first time only after the Great October Socialist Revolution. Accusatory motives in the writer's creative work forced him to keep his real name in secret.
Today Panas Mirny's works are published in millions of copies not only in his mother's tongue but also in many languages of the peoples of the USSR and foreign countries.
The Soviet country marked the writer's jubilees: the centenery since the beginning of his literary activity and 125-th anniversary since his birthday as nationwide celebrations.
Panas Mirny House-Museum built in 1939 and restored in 1962 is the expression of deep love and gratitude of the Ukrainian people to the memory of their great son. The house is situated in the picturesque outskirts of Poltava in the end of Panas Mirny street. A one-storey wooden house of seven rooms stands on the hill, behind which the garden stretched far away on the bank of the pond.
About a thousand things, books, photographs, documents which belonged to the writer and his family (. M. Rudchenko, his wife, Victor, Mikhail and Leonid, his sons), all the furniture of the house gives us a vivid view of Panas Mirny the writer, the citizen, the man. All his versatile activity is the devotion to the interests of his people. The writer's inheritance came into the gold fund of the native culture.




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